Regulation of Mouse Hepatic Genes in Response to Diet Induced Obesity, Insulin Resistance and Fasting Induced Weight Reduction
Raab, R Michael
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CitationRaab, R Michael, John Bullen, Joanne Kelleher, Christos Mantzoros, and Gregory Stephanopoulos. 2005. Regulation of mouse hepatic genes in response to diet induced obesity, insulin resistance and fasting induced weight reduction. Nutrition & Metabolism 2: 15.
AbstractBackground: Obesity is associated with insulin resistance that can often be improved by caloric restriction and weight reduction. Although many physiological changes accompanying insulin resistance and its treatment have been characterized, the genetic mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance are largely unknown. We used DNA microarrys and RT-PCR to investigate significant changes in hepatic gene transcription in insulin resistant, diet-induced obese (DIO)-C57/BL/6J mice and DIO-C57/BL/6J mice fasted for 48 hours, whose weights returned to baseline levels during these conditions. Results: Transcriptional profiling of hepatic mRNA revealed over 1900 genes that were significantly perturbed between control, DIO, and fasting/weight reduced DIO mice. From this set, our bioinformatics analysis identified 41 genes that rigorously discriminate these groups of mice. These genes are associated with molecular pathways involved in signal transduction, and protein metabolism and secretion. Of particular interest are genes that participate in pathways responsible for modulating insulin sensitivity. DIO altered expression of genes in directions that would be anticipated to antagonize insulin sensitivity, while fasting/ weight reduction partially or completely normalized their levels. Among these discriminatory genes, Sh3kbp1 and RGS3, may have special significance. Sh3kbp1, an endogenous inhibitor of PI-3-kinase, was upregulated by high-fat feeding, but normalized to control levels by fasting/weight reduction. Because insulin signaling occurs partially through PI-3-kinase, increased expression of Sh3kbp1 by DIO mice may contribute to hepatic insulin resistance via inhibition of PI-3-kinase. RGS3, a suppressor of G-protein coupled receptor generation of cAMP, was repressed by high-fat feeding, but partially normalized by fasting/weight reduction. Decreased expression of RGS3 may augment levels of cAMP and thereby contribute to increased, cAMP-induced, hepatic glucose output via phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1), whose mRNA levels were also elevated. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that hepatocytes respond to DIO and weight reduction by controlling gene transcription in a variety of important molecular pathways. Future studies that characterize the physiological significance of the identified genes in modulating energy homeostasis could provide a better understanding of the mechanisms linking DIO with insulin resistance.
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