Digital Access to Scholarship at Harvard The DASH digital repository system captures, stores, indexes, preserves, and distributes digital research material. https://dash.harvard.edu 2017-03-20T20:34:51Z 2017-03-20T20:34:51Z 10 33 1 Proverbial Economies: How an Understanding of Some Linguistic and Social Features of Common Sense Can Throw Light on More Prestigious Bodies of Knowledge, Science for Example Shapin, Steven http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:3221093 2009-12-15T22:07:26Z 2001-01-01T00:00:00Z Proverbial Economies: How an Understanding of Some Linguistic and Social Features of Common Sense Can Throw Light on More Prestigious Bodies of Knowledge, Science for Example Shapin, Steven An evaluative contrast between learned expertise and lay knowledge is a pervasive and longstanding feature of modern culture. Occasionally, the learned have pointed to folkish proverbs to illustrate the inadequacies of common-sense reasoning and judgement. Proverbs are said perspicuously to display the superficiality, the imprecision, and even the logical contradictions of common-sense thinking. I offer an interpretation of proverbs in their naturally occurring settings as epistemically powerful, mnemonically robust, practically pertinent, and referentially flexible. My purpose is not just to recuperate the value of proverbial reasoning but, ultimately, to show the relevance of such reasoning to a revised appreciation of modern technical practices, including science, technology and medicine. To that end, the paper concludes with some speculative remarks about the linguistic forms in which the heuristics of present-day technical practices are expressed and transmitted. 2001-01-01T00:00:00Z Diachronic Poetics and Language History: Studies in Archaic Greek Poetry Nikolaev, Alexander Sergeevich http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:10288626 2015-04-30T14:34:52Z 2013-02-12T00:00:00Z Diachronic Poetics and Language History: Studies in Archaic Greek Poetry Nikolaev, Alexander Sergeevich The broad objective of this dissertation is an interdisciplinary study uniting historical linguistics, classical philology, and comparative poetics in an attempt to investigate archaic Greek poetic texts from a diachronic perspective. This thesis consists of two parts. The first part, “Etymology and Poetics”, is devoted to several cases where scantiness of attestation and lack of semantic information render traditional philological methods of textual interpretation insufficient. In such cases, the meaning of a word has to be arrived at through linguistic analysis and verified through appeal to related poetic traditions, such as that of Indo-Iranian. Chapter 1 proposes a new interpretation for the enigmatic word ἀάατο̋, the Homeric epithet of the waters of the Styx, which is shown to have meant ‘sunless’. Chapter 2 deals with the word ἀριδείκετο̋, argued to mean ‘famous’: this solution finds support in the use of the root *dei̯k- in the poetic expression “to show forth praise”, found in Greek choral lyric and the Rigveda. Chapter 3 investigates the history of the verbs ἰάπτω ‘to harm’ and ἰάπτω ‘to send forth (to Hades)’. Chapter 4 improves the text of Pindar (O. 6.54), restoring a form ἀπειράτωι. Chapter 5 discusses the difficult word ἀμαυρό̋, establishing for it a meaning ‘weak’ and proposing a new etymology. Finally, Chapter 6 places Alc. 34 in the context of comparative mythology, with the object of reconstructing the history of the Lesbian lyric tradition. The second part, “Grammar of Poetry”, shifts the focus of the inquiry from comparative poetics to the language of early Greek poetry and its use. Chapter 7 addresses the problematic Homeric aorist infinitives in -έειν, showing how these artificial forms were created by allomorphic remodeling driven by metrical necessity; the problem is placed in the wider context of the debate about the transmission and development of Homeric epic diction. The metrical and linguistic facts relating to the distribution of infinitives are further discussed in Chapter 8, where it is argued that the unexpected Aeolic form νηφέμεν in Archil. 4 should be viewed as an intentional allusion to the epic tradition, specifically, the famous midsummer picnic scene in Hesiod. 2013-02-12T00:00:00Z Modernism’s Melos Albright, Daniel http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:9296727 2012-07-26T07:31:20Z 2011-01-01T00:00:00Z Modernism’s Melos Albright, Daniel 2011-01-01T00:00:00Z A Uniform Min-Max Theorem and Characterizations of Computational Randomness Zheng, Jia http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:11745716 2015-04-30T14:34:29Z 2014-02-25T00:00:00Z A Uniform Min-Max Theorem and Characterizations of Computational Randomness Zheng, Jia This thesis develops several tools and techniques using ideas from information theory, optimization, and online learning, and applies them to a number of highly related fundamental problems in complexity theory, pseudorandomness theory, and cryptography. 2014-02-25T00:00:00Z Be an Outlaw, Be a Hero: Cinematic Figures of Transgression and Urban Banditry in Brazil, France, and the Maghreb Gharavi, Maryam Monalisa Monalisa http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:10423844 2015-04-30T14:34:44Z 2013-03-18T00:00:00Z Be an Outlaw, Be a Hero: Cinematic Figures of Transgression and Urban Banditry in Brazil, France, and the Maghreb Gharavi, Maryam Monalisa Monalisa The project is a transnational study of how filmic representations of urban criminals and marginal figures transformed as Brazil, France, and the Maghreb shifted from military governments to liberal democracies. Beyond ideological productions that simply produce positive or negative portrayals, I examine how films made under military regimes invite audiences to identify with anti-heroes while films made under liberal democracies invite admiration of institutional figures, turning standards of good and evil on their head. The anti-authoritarian potential of violence in earlier periods is construed as a failed redemption in later ones. The theoretical background of the project rests on the oppositional and constitutive relationship between the outlaw and the state, the relationship between urban space and criminal personification, and the historical specificity of the transgressive figure's embodiment of socially un/desirable traits. I establish a geographic and conceptual continuity through a comparative postulation of urban citizenship--who belongs to the city and who does not, who is marked in their transgression and who is not, who is laudable bandit and who is condemned. In delving into a face-to-face relationship between the outlaw and the state following an aesthetic and historical tracing of a highly iconic figure at the margins of the law, the project brings statecraft into focus through the use of visual and representational forms. 2013-03-18T00:00:00Z The Ethnomusicologist and the Transmission of Tradition Shelemay, Kay http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:3292406 2009-12-15T22:11:36Z 1996-01-01T00:00:00Z The Ethnomusicologist and the Transmission of Tradition Shelemay, Kay 1996-01-01T00:00:00Z The Sequential Auction Problem on eBay: An Empirical Analysis and a Solution Juda, Adam I. Parkes, David C. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:4686808 2011-01-26T08:57:10Z 2006-01-01T00:00:00Z The Sequential Auction Problem on eBay: An Empirical Analysis and a Solution Juda, Adam I.; Parkes, David C. Bidders on eBay have no dominant bidding strategy when faced with multiple auctions each offering an item of interest. As seen through an analysis of 1,956 auctions on eBay for a Dell E193FP LCD monitor, some bidders win auctions at prices higher than those of other available auctions, while others never win an auction despite placing bids in losing efforts that are greater than the closing prices of other available auctions. These misqueues in strategic behavior hamper the efficiency of the system, and in so doing limit the revenue potential for sellers. This paper proposes a novel options-based extension to eBay's proxy-bidding system that resolves this strategic issue for buyers in commoditized markets. An empirical analysis of eBay provides a basis for computer simulations that investigate the market effects of the options-based scheme, and demonstrates that the options-based scheme provides greater efficiency than eBay, while also increasing seller revenue. 2006-01-01T00:00:00Z Randomness Condensers for Efficiently Samplable, Seed-Dependent Sources Dodis, Yevgeniy Ristenpart, Thomas Vadhan, Salil P. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:11688764 2014-02-11T08:31:19Z 2012-01-01T00:00:00Z Randomness Condensers for Efficiently Samplable, Seed-Dependent Sources Dodis, Yevgeniy; Ristenpart, Thomas; Vadhan, Salil P. We initiate a study of randomness condensers for sources that are efficiently samplable but may depend on the seed of the con- denser. That is, we seek functions Cond : {0, 1}n ×{0, 1}d → {0, 1}m such that if we choose a random seed S ← {0,1}d, and a source X = A(S) is generated by a randomized circuit A of size t such that X has min- entropy at least k given S, then Cond(X;S) should have min-entropy at least some k′ given S. The distinction from the standard notion of ran- domness condensers is that the source X may be correlated with the seed S (but is restricted to be efficiently samplable). Randomness extractors of this type (corresponding to the special case where k′ = m) have been implicitly studied in the past (by Trevisan and Vadhan, FOCS ‘00). We show that: – Unlike extractors, we can have randomness condensers for samplable, seed-dependent sources whose computational complexity is smaller than the size t of the adversarial sampling algorithm A. Indeed, we show that sufficiently strong collision-resistant hash functions are seed-dependent condensers that produce outputs with min-entropy k′ = m − O(log t), i.e. logarithmic entropy deficiency. – Randomness condensers suffice for key derivation in many crypto- graphic applications: when an adversary has negligible success proba- bility (or negligible “squared advantage” [3]) for a uniformly random key, we can use instead a key generated by a condenser whose output has logarithmic entropy deficiency. – Randomness condensers for seed-dependent samplable sources that are robust to side information generated by the sampling algorithm imply soundness of the Fiat-Shamir Heuristic when applied to any constant-round, public-coin interactive proof system. 2012-01-01T00:00:00Z Mycobacterium tuberculosis Type VII Secreted Effector EsxH Targets Host ESCRT to Impair Trafficking Mehra, Alka Zahra, Aleena Thompson, Victor Sirisaengtaksin, Natalie Wells, Ashley Porto, Maura Köster, Stefan Penberthy, Kristen Kubota, Yoshihisha Dricot, Amelie Rogan, Daniel Vidal, Marc Hill, David E. Bean, Andrew J. Philips, Jennifer A. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:11879172 2014-03-11T07:35:40Z 2013-01-01T00:00:00Z Mycobacterium tuberculosis Type VII Secreted Effector EsxH Targets Host ESCRT to Impair Trafficking Mehra, Alka; Zahra, Aleena; Thompson, Victor; Sirisaengtaksin, Natalie; Wells, Ashley; Porto, Maura; Köster, Stefan; Penberthy, Kristen; Kubota, Yoshihisha; Dricot, Amelie; Rogan, Daniel; Vidal, Marc; Hill, David E.; Bean, Andrew J.; Philips, Jennifer A. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) disrupts anti-microbial pathways of macrophages, cells that normally kill bacteria. Over 40 years ago, D'Arcy Hart showed that Mtb avoids delivery to lysosomes, but the molecular mechanisms that allow Mtb to elude lysosomal degradation are poorly understood. Specialized secretion systems are often used by bacterial pathogens to translocate effectors that target the host, and Mtb encodes type VII secretion systems (TSSSs) that enable mycobacteria to secrete proteins across their complex cell envelope; however, their cellular targets are unknown. Here, we describe a systematic strategy to identify bacterial virulence factors by looking for interactions between the Mtb secretome and host proteins using a high throughput, high stringency, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) platform. Using this approach we identified an interaction between EsxH, which is secreted by the Esx-3 TSSS, and human hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hgs/Hrs), a component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT). ESCRT has a well-described role in directing proteins destined for lysosomal degradation into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), ensuring degradation of the sorted cargo upon MVB-lysosome fusion. Here, we show that ESCRT is required to deliver Mtb to the lysosome and to restrict intracellular bacterial growth. Further, EsxH, in complex with EsxG, disrupts ESCRT function and impairs phagosome maturation. Thus, we demonstrate a role for a TSSS and the host ESCRT machinery in one of the central features of tuberculosis pathogenesis. 2013-01-01T00:00:00Z Characterizing Pseudoentropy and Simplifying Pseudorandom Generator Constructions Vadhan, Salil P. Zheng, Colin Jia http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:12724017 2014-08-20T07:31:51Z 2012-01-01T00:00:00Z Characterizing Pseudoentropy and Simplifying Pseudorandom Generator Constructions Vadhan, Salil P.; Zheng, Colin Jia We provide a characterization of pseudoentropy in terms of hardness of sampling: Let (X,B) be jointly distributed random variables such that B takes values in a polynomial-sized set. We show that B is computationally indistinguishable from a random variable of higher Shannon entropy given X if and only if there is no probabilistic polynomial-time S such that (X,S(X)) has small KL divergence from (X,B). This can be viewed as an analogue of the Impagliazzo Hardcore Theorem (FOCS '95) for Shannon entropy (rather than min-entropy). Using this characterization, we show that if f is a one-way function, then (f(Un),Un) has "next-bit pseudoentropy" at least n+log n, establishing a conjecture of Haitner, Reingold, and Vadhan (STOC '10). Plugging this into the construction of Haitner et al., this yields a simpler construction of pseudorandom generators from one-way functions. In particular, the construction only performs hashing once, and only needs the hash functions that are randomness extractors (e.g. universal hash functions) rather than needing them to support "local list-decoding" (as in the Goldreich--Levin hardcore predicate, STOC '89). With an additional idea, we also show how to improve the seed length of the pseudorandom generator to ~{O}(n3), compared to O(n4) in the construction of Haitner et al. 2012-01-01T00:00:00Z