Digital Access to Scholarship at Harvard The DASH digital repository system captures, stores, indexes, preserves, and distributes digital research material. https://dash.harvard.edu 2017-11-06T10:09:51Z 2017-11-06T10:09:51Z 10 47 1 Proverbial Economies: How an Understanding of Some Linguistic and Social Features of Common Sense Can Throw Light on More Prestigious Bodies of Knowledge, Science for Example Shapin, Steven http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:3221093 2009-12-15T22:07:26Z 2001-01-01T00:00:00Z Proverbial Economies: How an Understanding of Some Linguistic and Social Features of Common Sense Can Throw Light on More Prestigious Bodies of Knowledge, Science for Example Shapin, Steven An evaluative contrast between learned expertise and lay knowledge is a pervasive and longstanding feature of modern culture. Occasionally, the learned have pointed to folkish proverbs to illustrate the inadequacies of common-sense reasoning and judgement. Proverbs are said perspicuously to display the superficiality, the imprecision, and even the logical contradictions of common-sense thinking. I offer an interpretation of proverbs in their naturally occurring settings as epistemically powerful, mnemonically robust, practically pertinent, and referentially flexible. My purpose is not just to recuperate the value of proverbial reasoning but, ultimately, to show the relevance of such reasoning to a revised appreciation of modern technical practices, including science, technology and medicine. To that end, the paper concludes with some speculative remarks about the linguistic forms in which the heuristics of present-day technical practices are expressed and transmitted. 2001-01-01T00:00:00Z Diachronic Poetics and Language History: Studies in Archaic Greek Poetry Nikolaev, Alexander Sergeevich http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:10288626 2015-04-30T14:34:52Z 2013-02-12T00:00:00Z Diachronic Poetics and Language History: Studies in Archaic Greek Poetry Nikolaev, Alexander Sergeevich The broad objective of this dissertation is an interdisciplinary study uniting historical linguistics, classical philology, and comparative poetics in an attempt to investigate archaic Greek poetic texts from a diachronic perspective. This thesis consists of two parts. The first part, “Etymology and Poetics”, is devoted to several cases where scantiness of attestation and lack of semantic information render traditional philological methods of textual interpretation insufficient. In such cases, the meaning of a word has to be arrived at through linguistic analysis and verified through appeal to related poetic traditions, such as that of Indo-Iranian. Chapter 1 proposes a new interpretation for the enigmatic word ἀάατο̋, the Homeric epithet of the waters of the Styx, which is shown to have meant ‘sunless’. Chapter 2 deals with the word ἀριδείκετο̋, argued to mean ‘famous’: this solution finds support in the use of the root *dei̯k- in the poetic expression “to show forth praise”, found in Greek choral lyric and the Rigveda. Chapter 3 investigates the history of the verbs ἰάπτω ‘to harm’ and ἰάπτω ‘to send forth (to Hades)’. Chapter 4 improves the text of Pindar (O. 6.54), restoring a form ἀπειράτωι. Chapter 5 discusses the difficult word ἀμαυρό̋, establishing for it a meaning ‘weak’ and proposing a new etymology. Finally, Chapter 6 places Alc. 34 in the context of comparative mythology, with the object of reconstructing the history of the Lesbian lyric tradition. The second part, “Grammar of Poetry”, shifts the focus of the inquiry from comparative poetics to the language of early Greek poetry and its use. Chapter 7 addresses the problematic Homeric aorist infinitives in -έειν, showing how these artificial forms were created by allomorphic remodeling driven by metrical necessity; the problem is placed in the wider context of the debate about the transmission and development of Homeric epic diction. The metrical and linguistic facts relating to the distribution of infinitives are further discussed in Chapter 8, where it is argued that the unexpected Aeolic form νηφέμεν in Archil. 4 should be viewed as an intentional allusion to the epic tradition, specifically, the famous midsummer picnic scene in Hesiod. 2013-02-12T00:00:00Z Modernism’s Melos Albright, Daniel http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:9296727 2012-07-26T07:31:20Z 2011-01-01T00:00:00Z Modernism’s Melos Albright, Daniel 2011-01-01T00:00:00Z A Uniform Min-Max Theorem and Characterizations of Computational Randomness Zheng, Jia http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:11745716 2015-04-30T14:34:29Z 2014-02-25T00:00:00Z A Uniform Min-Max Theorem and Characterizations of Computational Randomness Zheng, Jia This thesis develops several tools and techniques using ideas from information theory, optimization, and online learning, and applies them to a number of highly related fundamental problems in complexity theory, pseudorandomness theory, and cryptography. 2014-02-25T00:00:00Z Be an Outlaw, Be a Hero: Cinematic Figures of Transgression and Urban Banditry in Brazil, France, and the Maghreb Gharavi, Maryam Monalisa Monalisa http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:10423844 2015-04-30T14:34:44Z 2013-03-18T00:00:00Z Be an Outlaw, Be a Hero: Cinematic Figures of Transgression and Urban Banditry in Brazil, France, and the Maghreb Gharavi, Maryam Monalisa Monalisa The project is a transnational study of how filmic representations of urban criminals and marginal figures transformed as Brazil, France, and the Maghreb shifted from military governments to liberal democracies. Beyond ideological productions that simply produce positive or negative portrayals, I examine how films made under military regimes invite audiences to identify with anti-heroes while films made under liberal democracies invite admiration of institutional figures, turning standards of good and evil on their head. The anti-authoritarian potential of violence in earlier periods is construed as a failed redemption in later ones. The theoretical background of the project rests on the oppositional and constitutive relationship between the outlaw and the state, the relationship between urban space and criminal personification, and the historical specificity of the transgressive figure's embodiment of socially un/desirable traits. I establish a geographic and conceptual continuity through a comparative postulation of urban citizenship--who belongs to the city and who does not, who is marked in their transgression and who is not, who is laudable bandit and who is condemned. In delving into a face-to-face relationship between the outlaw and the state following an aesthetic and historical tracing of a highly iconic figure at the margins of the law, the project brings statecraft into focus through the use of visual and representational forms. 2013-03-18T00:00:00Z The Ethnomusicologist and the Transmission of Tradition Shelemay, Kay http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:3292406 2009-12-15T22:11:36Z 1996-01-01T00:00:00Z The Ethnomusicologist and the Transmission of Tradition Shelemay, Kay 1996-01-01T00:00:00Z The Sequential Auction Problem on eBay: An Empirical Analysis and a Solution Juda, Adam I. Parkes, David C. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:4686808 2011-01-26T08:57:10Z 2006-01-01T00:00:00Z The Sequential Auction Problem on eBay: An Empirical Analysis and a Solution Juda, Adam I.; Parkes, David C. Bidders on eBay have no dominant bidding strategy when faced with multiple auctions each offering an item of interest. As seen through an analysis of 1,956 auctions on eBay for a Dell E193FP LCD monitor, some bidders win auctions at prices higher than those of other available auctions, while others never win an auction despite placing bids in losing efforts that are greater than the closing prices of other available auctions. These misqueues in strategic behavior hamper the efficiency of the system, and in so doing limit the revenue potential for sellers. This paper proposes a novel options-based extension to eBay's proxy-bidding system that resolves this strategic issue for buyers in commoditized markets. An empirical analysis of eBay provides a basis for computer simulations that investigate the market effects of the options-based scheme, and demonstrates that the options-based scheme provides greater efficiency than eBay, while also increasing seller revenue. 2006-01-01T00:00:00Z Randomness Condensers for Efficiently Samplable, Seed-Dependent Sources Dodis, Yevgeniy Ristenpart, Thomas Vadhan, Salil P. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:11688764 2014-02-11T08:31:19Z 2012-01-01T00:00:00Z Randomness Condensers for Efficiently Samplable, Seed-Dependent Sources Dodis, Yevgeniy; Ristenpart, Thomas; Vadhan, Salil P. We initiate a study of randomness condensers for sources that are efficiently samplable but may depend on the seed of the con- denser. That is, we seek functions Cond : {0, 1}n ×{0, 1}d → {0, 1}m such that if we choose a random seed S ← {0,1}d, and a source X = A(S) is generated by a randomized circuit A of size t such that X has min- entropy at least k given S, then Cond(X;S) should have min-entropy at least some k′ given S. The distinction from the standard notion of ran- domness condensers is that the source X may be correlated with the seed S (but is restricted to be efficiently samplable). Randomness extractors of this type (corresponding to the special case where k′ = m) have been implicitly studied in the past (by Trevisan and Vadhan, FOCS ‘00). We show that: – Unlike extractors, we can have randomness condensers for samplable, seed-dependent sources whose computational complexity is smaller than the size t of the adversarial sampling algorithm A. Indeed, we show that sufficiently strong collision-resistant hash functions are seed-dependent condensers that produce outputs with min-entropy k′ = m − O(log t), i.e. logarithmic entropy deficiency. – Randomness condensers suffice for key derivation in many crypto- graphic applications: when an adversary has negligible success proba- bility (or negligible “squared advantage” [3]) for a uniformly random key, we can use instead a key generated by a condenser whose output has logarithmic entropy deficiency. – Randomness condensers for seed-dependent samplable sources that are robust to side information generated by the sampling algorithm imply soundness of the Fiat-Shamir Heuristic when applied to any constant-round, public-coin interactive proof system. 2012-01-01T00:00:00Z The Devil’s Shoehorn: A case study of EAD to ArchivesSpace migration at a large university Mayo, William David Bowers, Kathryn A. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:30356833 2017-07-28T08:19:41Z 2017-01-01T00:00:00Z The Devil’s Shoehorn: A case study of EAD to ArchivesSpace migration at a large university Mayo, William David; Bowers, Kathryn A. A band of archivists and IT professionals at Harvard took on a project to convert nearly two million descriptions of archival collection components from marked-up text into the ArchivesSpace archival metadata management system. Starting in the mid-1990s, Harvard was an alpha implementer of EAD, an SGML (later XML) text markup language for electronic inventories, indexes, and finding aids that archivists use to wend their way through the sometimes quirky filing systems that bureaucracies establish for their records or the utter chaos in which some individuals keep their personal archives. These pathfinder documents, designed to cope with messy reality, can themselves be difficult to classify. Portions of them are rigorously structured, while other parts are narrative. Early documents predate the establishment of the standard; many feature idiosyncratic encoding that had been through several machine conversions, while others were freshly encoded and fairly consistent. In this paper, we will cover the practical and technical challenges involved in preparing a large (900MiB) corpus of XML for ingest into an open-source archival information system (ArchivesSpace). This case study will give an overview of the project, discuss problem discovery and problem solving, and address the technical challenges, analysis, solutions, and decisions and provide information on the tools produced and lessons learned. The authors of this piece are Kate Bowers, Collections Services Archivist for Metadata, Systems, and Standards at the Harvard University Archive, and Dave Mayo, a Digital Library Software Engineer for Harvard’s Library and Technology Services. Kate was heavily involved in both metadata analysis and later problem solving, while Dave was the sole full-time developer assigned to the migration project. 2017-01-01T00:00:00Z Mycobacterium tuberculosis Type VII Secreted Effector EsxH Targets Host ESCRT to Impair Trafficking Mehra, Alka Zahra, Aleena Thompson, Victor Sirisaengtaksin, Natalie Wells, Ashley Porto, Maura Köster, Stefan Penberthy, Kristen Kubota, Yoshihisha Dricot, Amelie Rogan, Daniel Vidal, Marc Hill, David E. Bean, Andrew J. Philips, Jennifer A. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:11879172 2014-03-11T07:35:40Z 2013-01-01T00:00:00Z Mycobacterium tuberculosis Type VII Secreted Effector EsxH Targets Host ESCRT to Impair Trafficking Mehra, Alka; Zahra, Aleena; Thompson, Victor; Sirisaengtaksin, Natalie; Wells, Ashley; Porto, Maura; Köster, Stefan; Penberthy, Kristen; Kubota, Yoshihisha; Dricot, Amelie; Rogan, Daniel; Vidal, Marc; Hill, David E.; Bean, Andrew J.; Philips, Jennifer A. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) disrupts anti-microbial pathways of macrophages, cells that normally kill bacteria. Over 40 years ago, D'Arcy Hart showed that Mtb avoids delivery to lysosomes, but the molecular mechanisms that allow Mtb to elude lysosomal degradation are poorly understood. Specialized secretion systems are often used by bacterial pathogens to translocate effectors that target the host, and Mtb encodes type VII secretion systems (TSSSs) that enable mycobacteria to secrete proteins across their complex cell envelope; however, their cellular targets are unknown. Here, we describe a systematic strategy to identify bacterial virulence factors by looking for interactions between the Mtb secretome and host proteins using a high throughput, high stringency, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) platform. Using this approach we identified an interaction between EsxH, which is secreted by the Esx-3 TSSS, and human hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hgs/Hrs), a component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT). ESCRT has a well-described role in directing proteins destined for lysosomal degradation into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), ensuring degradation of the sorted cargo upon MVB-lysosome fusion. Here, we show that ESCRT is required to deliver Mtb to the lysosome and to restrict intracellular bacterial growth. Further, EsxH, in complex with EsxG, disrupts ESCRT function and impairs phagosome maturation. Thus, we demonstrate a role for a TSSS and the host ESCRT machinery in one of the central features of tuberculosis pathogenesis. 2013-01-01T00:00:00Z