Regulation of Growth Factor and Nutrient Sensing Pathways by Human Papillomavirus E6 Proteins
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CitationSpangle, Jennifer Marie. 2012. Regulation of Growth Factor and Nutrient Sensing Pathways by Human Papillomavirus E6 Proteins. Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University.
AbstractHigh-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with nearly all cases of cervical cancer and also contribute to other types of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. The high-risk HPV E6 oncoprotein contributes to malignant progression in part by the targeted degradation of the tumor suppressor p53. The activation of growth factor and nutrient sensing pathways including receptor protein tyrosine kinases (RPTKs) and mTORC1 may also support cellular transformation. Moreover, previous studies suggested that HPV16 E6 activates mTORC1. We are particularly interested in understanding the mechanisms by which HPV E6 activates mTORC1 and the function of mTORC1 activation in HPV infection. Here we show that high-risk HPV16 E6 activates mTORC1 signaling and increases cap dependent translation through an increase in S6K signaling and an increase in 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. Mechanistically we found that HPV16 E6 activates AKT under conditions of nutrient deprivation. The combined approach of phospho-tyrosine immunoprecipitations and Western blot identified HPV16 E6 mediated activation of a subset of receptor protein tyrosine kinases. HPV16 E6 activates RPTKs at least in part by increasing the internalization of phosphorylated and activated receptor species. The signaling adaptor protein Grb2 associates with HPV16 E6, and Grb2 knockdown abrogated HPV16 E6 mediated mTORC1 activation. We hypothesize that Grb2 may be important in relaying E6 mediated RPTK activation to downstream signaling cascades. In this dissertation we also evaluate mTORC1 signaling and cap dependent translation in cells expressing HPV16 E6 mutants and E6 proteins from other HPV types. Binding to p53 and the association with proteins that contain an LXXLL motif are important for HPV16 E6 mediated mTORC1 activation. An increase in mTORC1 activation and cap dependent translation is shared between high-and low-risk mucosal, but not cutaneous HPV E6 proteins. Association with proteins through their LXXLL binding motif is also important for low-risk mucosal HPV E6 activation of mTORC1 and cap dependent translation. Shared mucosal E6 activation of mTORC1 indicates that mTORC1 may be important for the viral lifecycle in mucosal epithelia. However, it does not rule out the possibility that together with other properties of high-risk HPV E6 proteins, mTORC1 activation may promote transformation.
Citable link to this pagehttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:10345147
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