Nanophotonic Structures for Coupling to Quantum Emitters in the Visible

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Nanophotonic Structures for Coupling to Quantum Emitters in the Visible

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Title: Nanophotonic Structures for Coupling to Quantum Emitters in the Visible
Author: Choy, Jennifer Tze-Heng
Citation: Choy, Jennifer Tze-Heng. 2013. Nanophotonic Structures for Coupling to Quantum Emitters in the Visible. Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University.
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Abstract: This thesis is about the design, fabrication, and characterization of nanophotonic elements in the visible that can enhance light-matter interaction for single quantum emitters. We focus on two material systems: single photon sources based on the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond with improved spontaneous emission rates and collection efficiencies, and passive TiO2 devices that comprise a potentially broadband (from the visible to the infrared), low loss photonics platform and that are suitable for probing and manipulating single colloidal quantum dots. We first discuss the requirements for using color center emission in bulk diamond crystals for potential applications in quantum information processing, and provide examples of using nanowire structures and planar resonators made in diamond for engineering the the NV center’s pump and collection efficiencies, and spontaneous emission rates, respectively. We also describe the integration of diamond with plasmonic structures. We have designed and implemented diamond-silver apertures for broadband enhancements of the spontaneous emission rates of NV centers. We show that shallow-implanted NV centers in diamond nanoposts provide a good system for controlling the NV center spontaneous emission rates, allowing for quenched emission with long lifetimes in the bare case, and enhanced emission with fast decay rates (corresponding to a Purcell factor of around 6) when coated with silver. We add plasmonic gratings around the diamond-silver apertures to improve the collection efficiency of the system, and observe over two-fold improvement in collection. We demonstrate the fabrication of chip-scale linear optical elements such as waveguides and racetrack resonators in low-loss \(TiO_2\) thin films. The fabricated waveguides operate over a wide bandwidth with propagation losses from from 30 dB/cm in the visible to 4 dB/cm in the IR, while racetrack resonators can critically couple to waveg- uides and have quality factors as high as ~22000 in the red wavelengths. We present the fabrication of dielectric slot waveguides and their integration with colloidal quan- tum dots. Finally, we describe efforts to study and control charge transfer processes between quantum dots and \(TiO_2\) on a single emitter level.
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