Entanglement and Metrology With Singlet-Triplet Qubits

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Entanglement and Metrology With Singlet-Triplet Qubits

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Title: Entanglement and Metrology With Singlet-Triplet Qubits
Author: Shulman, Michael Dean
Citation: Shulman, Michael Dean. 2015. Entanglement and Metrology With Singlet-Triplet Qubits. Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, Graduate School of Arts & Sciences.
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Abstract: Electron spins confined in semiconductor quantum dots are emerging as a promising system to study quantum information science and to perform sensitive metrology. Their weak interaction with the environment leads to long coherence times and robust storage for quantum information, and the intrinsic tunability of semiconductors allows for controllable operations, initialization, and readout of their quantum state. These spin qubits are also promising candidates for the building block for a scalable quantum information processor due to their prospects for scalability and miniaturization. owever, several obstacles limit the performance of quantum information experiments in these systems. For example, the weak coupling to the environment makes inter-qubit operations challenging, and a fluctuating nuclear magnetic field limits the performance of single-qubit operations.

The focus of this thesis will be several experiments which address some of the outstanding problems in semiconductor spin qubits, in particular, singlet-triplet (S-T0) qubits. We use these qubits to probe both the electric field and magnetic field noise that limit the performance of these qubits. The magnetic noise bath is probed with high bandwidth and precision using novel techniques borrowed from the field of Hamiltonian learning, which are effective due to the rapid control and readout available in S-T0 qubits. These findings allow us to effectively undo the undesired effects of the fluctuating nuclear magnetic field by tracking them in real-time, and we demonstrate a 30-fold improvement in the coherence time T2*.

We probe the voltage noise environment of the qubit using coherent qubit oscillations, which is partially enabled by control of the nuclear magnetic field. We find that the voltage noise bath is frequency- dependent, even at frequencies as high as 1MHz, and it shows surprising and, as of yet, unexplained temperature dependence. We leverage this knowledge of the voltage noise environment, the nuclear magnetic field control, as well as new techniques for calibrated measurement of the density matrix in a singlet-triplet qubit to entangle two adjacent single-triplet qubits. We fully characterize the generated entangled states and prove that they are, indeed, entangled.

This work opens new opportunities to use qubits as sensors for improved metrological capabilities, as well as for improved quantum information processing. The singlet-triplet qubit is unique in that it can be used to probe two fundamentally different noise baths, which are important for a large variety of solid state qubits. More specifically, this work establishes the singlet-triplet qubit as a viable candidate for the building block of a scalable quantum information processor.
Terms of Use: This article is made available under the terms and conditions applicable to Other Posted Material, as set forth at http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:dash.current.terms-of-use#LAA
Citable link to this page: http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:17467336
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