A general cartographic labeling algorithm
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CitationShawn Edmondson, Jon Christensen, Joe Marks, and Stuart M. Shieber. A general cartographic labeling algorithm. Cartographica, 33(4):13-23, Winter 1996.
AbstractSome apparently powerful algorithms for automatic label placement on maps use heuristics that capture considerable cartographic expertise but are hampered by provably inefficient methods of search and optimization. On the other hand, no approach to label placement that is based on an efficient optimization technique has been applied to the production of general cartographic maps - those with labeled point, line, and area features - and shown to generate labelings of acceptable quality. We present an algorithm for label placement that achieves the twin goals of practical efficiency and high labeling quality by combining simple cartographic heuristics with effective stochastic optimization techniques.
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