Emissions Accounting and Carbon Tax Incidence in CGE Models: Bottom-Up Versus Top-Down
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CitationGoettle, Richard J., Mun S. Ho, and Peter J. Wilcoxen. 2019. Emissions Accounting and Carbon Tax Incidence in CGE Models: Bottomup versus Top-Down. In Measuring Economic Growth and Productivity: Foundations, KLEMS Production Models, and Extensions.
AbstractMulti-sector general equilibrium models are the work-horses used to analyze the impact of carbon prices in climate policy discussions. Such models often have distinct industries to represent coal, liquid fuels, and gas production where the output over time is represented by quantity and price indexes. The industries that buy these fuels, however, do not use a common homogenous quantity (e.g., steam coal vs. metallurgical coal) and have distinct purchasing price indexes. In accounting for energy use or CO2 emissions, modelers choose to attach coefficients either bottom-up to a sector specific input index or top-down to an average output index and this choice has a direct bearing on the incidence of carbon taxation. We discuss how different accounting methods for the differences in prices can have a large effect on the simulated impact of carbon prices. We emphasize the importance for modelers to be explicit about their methods.
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