The resilience of Triatoma dimidiata: An analysis of reinfestation in the Nicaraguan Chagas disease vector control program (2010–2016)
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CitationYoshioka, Kota, Ezequiel Provendor, and Jennifer Manne-Goehler. 2018. The resilience of Triatoma dimidiata: An analysis of reinfestation in the Nicaraguan Chagas disease vector control program (2010–2016). PLOS One 13 (8): e0202949.
The control of Triatoma dimidiata, a major vector of Chagas disease, was believed to eliminate Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in Central America. This vector was known for its ability to repeatedly reinfest human dwellings even after initial insecticide spraying. Current vector control programs assume that community-based surveillance can maintain low levels of infestation over many years, despite a lack of evidence in the literature to corroborate this assumption. This study aims to evaluate long-term reinfestation risk in the Nicaraguan vector control program from 2010 to 2016.
We collected data from a cohort of 395 houses in Pueblo Nuevo, Nicaragua. Primary data were collected through a field survey to assess post-intervention levels of T. dimidiata house infestation in 2016, two years after the large-scale insecticide spraying. We obtained secondary data from the records about past infestation levels and control activities between 2010 and 2015. Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with post-intervention house infestation.
The control program effectively reduced the infestation level from 2010 to 2014. Community-based surveillance was introduced in 2013; however, post-intervention infestation in 2016 had nearly reached pre-intervention levels in rural villages. Post-intervention house infestation was positively associated with poor wall construction, roofing tiles piled in the peri-domestic areas or the presence of dogs. Interestingly, the odds of post-intervention house infestation were one-fifth less when villagers sprayed their own houses regularly. Past infestation levels and the intensity of government-led insecticide spraying did not explain post-intervention house infestation.
The vector control program failed to offer sustained reductions in T. dimidiata house infestation. This experience would suggest that community-based surveillance is an insufficient approach to suppressing T. dimidiata house infestation over many years. This study provides evidence to suggest that control policies for T. dimidiata should be reconsidered throughout Central America.
Citable link to this pagehttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:37480178
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